Government of India has implemented several social security schemes with an aim to reach out and support its citizenry. Enumerated below are a few major programmes:
(1) National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP): This scheme was launched in 1995-96 as a centrally sponsored scheme, administered by the Ministry of Rural Development. But with effect from 2002-03 NSAP was transferred to the State Plan. Funds for the scheme are now provided as Additional Central Assistance (ACA) to the States.
NSAP comprises of following schemes:
- Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS)
- National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS)
- Annapurna Scheme
- Indira Gandhi National Widow Pension Scheme (IGNWPS): Introduced in February 2009, this scheme is applicable to below poverty line widows in the age group of 40-64 years.
- Indira Gandhi National Disability Pension Scheme (IGNDPS): Introduced in February 2009, it is applicable to below poverty line persons with severe or multiple disabilities in the age group of 18-64 years.
(2) Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY): This scheme seeks to provide gainful employment to the urban unemployed or underemployed poor by encouraging setting up of self-employment ventures or provision of wage employment. SJSRY is a centrally sponsored schemes funded on a 75:25 basis between the Centre and the States. To avail benefits under this scheme the Municipal Board of the respective State should be contacted.
(3) Provident Fund Benefits, Pension and Monetary Assistance under the Employees’ Provident Funds & Miscellaneous Provisions Act,1952
(4) Health care and Cash benefit payments in the case of sickness, maternity and employment injury under the Employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948.
(5) Welfare funds for different sections of unorganized workers on matters relating to:
- life and disability cover
- health and maternity benefit
- housing assistance
- scholarship to the children of beneficiaries and recreation
- old age protection under the Unorganized Workers’ Social Security Act, 2008
(6) Schemes for rural poor including landless labourers such as Swarnjayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana, Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana and Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana.
(7) Employment guarantee under National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005 : The NREGA is a Peoples Act in several sense. The Act empowers ordinary people to play an active role in the implementation of employment guarantee schemes through Gram Sabhas, social audits, participatory planning and other means. The objective of the programme is to enhance livelihood security in rural areas by providing at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work.
(8) Schemes for Elderly and disabled : Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment runs an Integrated Programme for Older Persons which includes schemes for Old Age Homes, Day Care Centres and Mobile Medicare Units. Similarly, schemes for the disabled include providing assistance to Disabled Persons for purchase or fitting of Aid’s/Appliances (ADIP) and providing grant-in-aid for rehabilitation/empowerment of persons with disabilities through projects such as Special Schools for Mentally Retarded/Hearing Impaired/Visually Handicapped, Vocational Training Centres etc. under The Deendayal Disabled Rehabilitation Scheme.
(9) Schemes for rehabilitation of victims of substance (Drugs) abuse.